IN PRESSRESULTSSTUDENT ZONE RESEARCH PAPER NCBS 2009-2010 PAPER

BIOTECHNOLOGY

What is Biotechnology?
The meaning of the word "Biotechnology" derives form the words:bios=life, teuchos=tool and logos=study of or essence.
Thus the word literally means: the study of tools from living things. Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services Biotechnology Includes any technique or technological application that uses biological systems or living organisms to create or modify products and processes of food production, sustainable agriculture, fisheries, and forestry.

This includes recombinant DNA technology, transgenic crops and animals, genetically modified foods, biopharmaceuticals, bioremediation, and more Modern definition - Biotechnology is the application of technologies, such as recombinant DNA techniques, biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, genetics and genetic engineering, and cell fusion techniques etc. using living organisms or its products, to manufacture industrial products including antibiotics, insulin, and interferon, to improve plants or animals, to develop microorganisms for specific uses, to identify targetsfor pharmaceutical development, to transform biological systems into useful processes and products or to develop organisms for specific uses. In the modern definition, the focus of biotechnology is so much not the principle of using organisms to do things but the techniques for doing so. E.g.: DNA sequencing, PCR, cloning genes, cloning animals.
Thus Biotechnology is the applied use of molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology to influence specific biological processes largely related to meeting human needs.

What is Biotechnology?
Biotechnology has been around almost as long as the human species. Early humans depended on plants and animals for food, clothing, shelter and fuel. The change from hunting and gathering as a way of life to an agrarian lifestyle led to selective breeding of plants and animals. The first attempts at agriculture involved the spreading of seeds on the ground and the harvesting of the plants that grew from them. Over time they noticed that certain plants from the same species had superior characteristics. Some produced a greater yield; some were better tasting, while others were more resistant to adverse environmental conditions. By selecting seeds from these desirable plants they were able to produce a greater amount of high quality food. Similar practices led to the development of many breeds of domestic animals. For example the domestic cow has been developed to be a docile animal, which has good milk or meat production. The biological processes of microorganisms were used for 6,000 years to make useful food products, such as bread and cheese, and to preserve dairy products and crops. Early examples of biotechnology involved manipulating entire organisms.

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